In her influential book The Death and Life of Great American Cities published in 1961, Jane Jacobs relates the important lessons of her Greenwich Village neighborhood. The mix of residential and retail, closely-spaced and hugging the sidewalk and the street, results in a neighborhood full of life and vitality. For Jacobs, buildings oriented to the street are the key to successful, lively communities.
She critiqued planning professions for their failure to understand how urban neighborhoods work. Jacobs points out the mistake planners make in turning buildings inward, away from the street or isolating buildings in the midst of open areas, robbing these neighborhoods of the very things that engender a sense of community.
The greatest amount of public space in cities is provided by the street system, the public right-of-ways. Smaller blocks and a tight-knit grid ensure intimate, walkable neighborhoods. In Hoboken, the streets and sidewalks comprise 24 percent of the land area. The streets are where we meet, a point of contact.
A lively streetscape is essential to successful urban neighborhoods. Front doors, stoops, retail shops, cafes and restaurants abut the front lot line. In turn, people are attracted to these streets, further enhancing the life and activity taking place there.
Conversely, blank walls without front doors or windows deaden a streetscape. Ground floor parking, or worse – multi-story parking garages abutting sidewalks — is a sure-fire means of killing street life. Setting buildings too far back from the street line further detracts from the life of urban streets.
In Hoboken, there are many examples of new development that have extended the town’s neighborhood character:
- At Hoboken’s South Waterfront, developed beginning in the late 1990s, front doors face the street. Restaurants and shops line the three-block stretch. Parking garages are hidden within the interior of these blocks. (Photo 1)
- For the entire length of the waterfront, Sinatra Drive clearly separates the waterfront park from the upland private development. The extended street grid confines new development to Hoboken-sized blocks.
- Within historic neighborhoods, developers have built on empty lots (in-fill development) following the traditional pattern of development, building on small lots, with stoops and front doors facing the front lot line and the street.
- Similarly, at the In-Fill District of the North End Redevelopment Area (north of 14th Street and west of Willow), recent development has taken place on various lots within each block, creating a variety of architectural styles and a neighborhood ambience. (Photo 2)